The updated AIDA Country Report on Romania provides a detailed overview on legislative and practice-related developments in asylum procedures, reception conditions, detention of asylum seekers, the content of international protection, as well as the procedure for and content of temporary protection in 2022.
In the country, the number of asylum seekers increased by 28.9% in 2022, with 12,368 new asylum applications registered, compared to 9,591 in 2021. People fleeing Ukraine represented the highest number of applicants (4,398 applications), though these cases were later assessed under the temporary protection provisions. Other most represented countries of origin consisted of India, Bangladesh and Syria. The overall recognition rate remained low at first instance, with only 25.7% of applicants being granted one form of international protection. Although the rejection rate for Afghan applicants decreased from last year (87.6%), it remained high in 2022, with a 65.2% rejection rate. The number of asylum applications assessed in accelerated procedures further increased in 2022 and reached 2,306, compared to 1,968 in 2021 and 885 in 2020.
There was a significant decrease (over 60%) of the migratory pressure at the border with Serbia in 2022. According to the Border Police, this is explained by having secured vulnerable border areas and increased response capacity, including with FRONTEX support, as well as by the collaboration with the Serbian border authorities. In 2022, 27,524 people were prevented from entering the country, a 63.6% decrease compared to 2021. In 2022, Romanian authorities stated that 685 persons were returned to Serbia based on the readmission agreement. As in previous years, asylum seekers complained about ill treatment by Border Police /Gendarmerie officers at the border.
In 2022, hygienic conditions improved in at least two reception centres. Yet, in other centres, the Romanian Ombudsman’s reports described the hygienic conditions as inadequate or deteriorated. With ongoing renovation works, the total capacity of the centres was reduced from 1,100 to 860 places. The construction works destined to increase the number of accommodation places in the regional centres were suspended. A positive development was the increase registered in the amount of the monthly financial allowance granted to asylum seekers, which went from 480 to 960 RON.
As of 31 December 2022, the total number of individuals registered for temporary protection in the country was 101,076. According to the Border Police, 3,179,309 Ukrainian citizens entered the country and 3,073,467 left Romania in 2022. According to a UNHCR report from December 2022, 106,000 people who had fled from Ukraine remained in Romania. Most beneficiaries of temporary protection live in private accommodations in host communities, although government-managed accommodation centres are available. Beneficiaries have full access to the labour market, and children can access education under the conditions of Romanian children. They also have full access to healthcare.
For further information:
- Find comparative information in the Asylum Information Database (AIDA) managed by ECRE